I begin this lecture with two quotations that I find exemplary when talking about automobility. Both illustrate the complexity that is inherent to the phenomenon of automobility and its meaning te modern societies and cities. The very first statement comes form an bouwmeester and urban planner. It exposes that automobility wasgoed an integral part of the modernist ideology from its very beginning on. Spil such automobility has become an inseparable part of the urbanization process and thus a key part of the modernization project.
When talking about city spil a political form I am referring to ‘political’ spil a way of how to organize a life ter a society. Spil a political form the city has recently undergone some significant switches. Everyone acknowledges that a nation-state has already lost certain political influence. One nevertheless wonders, who is occupying the political ground traditionally belonging to the nation-state?
Let’s start with Beograd. Unlike Rotterdam, where each square peettante is planed, te Beograd uncountable spontaneous activities speelgoedpop out all the time, overlap, create series of unpredictable situations and let the city run out of control. Tho’ this lack of control is to some extent culturally related, it is the very absence of consistent urban policy that mainly shaped Beograd ter the past decade. Not only because of a laagconjunctuur that Yugoslavia experienced ter the nineties – the ideology on power wasgoed te fact intensely dependent on such anti-urban policy and supported it until the pauze down of Milo№eviж staatsbestel. Spil a consequence automobility manifests itself rather dramatically te Beograd.
According to Sanford Kwinter Houston actually is “no real city at all but rather a liberate confederation of industrial profit centres that together form an ethereal web of collective infrastructure and economic partnerships.”, Spil such it is an outcome of a cowboy profit-driven neo-liberal policy, which sees a city spil nothing more than a gigantic machine for making business. There are no local or state taxation and the city is known to have one of the poorest services considering quality of drinking water, sewerage or air. On tegenstelling its mobility infrastructure is one of the most efficient te the world. Te fact the automobility overwhelms other modes of transportation. Some even rechtsvordering Houston to be the ‘capital of automobility’ and one of the least congested cities. Traffic is very efficient not because the city is permanently widening existing and constructing fresh freeways. Houston also has one of the most sophisticated traffic control systems.
There is hardly a city on the world, where more infrastructure has bot built recently spil ter Shanghai. Investments into the mobility infrastructure have raised for 15x from 0,72 billion te 1990 to Ten,9 billion Yuan te 1998. There are two main reasons. The very first is specific historical and economical development of Shanghai and its position within China. Ter a country where politics and economics are closely interlinked Shanghai’s economic power has made it an significant actor ter national policy. It has become the so-called ‘Dragon’s head of China’s economy.’ Therefore Shanghai represents one of four municipalities te China under rechtstreeks administration of the central government. The national policy influences the city considerably. On the other mitt the mayor of Shanghai has a substantial political backup to run the city. Ter this way it is not surprising that the Chinese voorzitter Jiang Zemin wasgoed prior the party leader and the mayor of Shanghai.
Many still think that globalisation leads to a single global culture. On contrary, I believe, that transformations that wij recognize spil modernization do reflect the diverse embarking points. The future of the world seems more likely to be one te which all societies will fall under switches and some may be parallel. But the societies will not converge. Fresh differences are emerging from the old, numerous traditions are evolving into numerous modernities.
·,intimisation, disappearance of public field that automobility causes te Houston
·,privatisation of traffic infrastructure and its speculative character ter Shanghai